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EbbaBiolight are optotracers for detection of bacteria & components of bacterial biofilm.

EbbaBiolight is available in five variants which label extracellular and intracellular bacterial amyloids as well as certain glucans produced as part of the extracellular matrix. Specifically, EbbaBiolight variants have been used as follows: EbbaBiolight 480 labels extracellular matrix produced by P. aeruginosa but not C. albicans in a mircofluidic device during mono- and co-culture. EbbaBiolight 630 and EbbaBiolight 680 label peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acids in the cell wall of certain gram positives like Staphylococci and E. faecalis. EbbaBiolight 680 labels curli in the extracellular matrix produced by Salmonella as well as β-glucans and chitins in yeast- and hypal forms of C. albicans. It has been used to track pellicle formation in B. cenocepacia and label extracellular matrix components in Pseudomonas and E. coli.

All EbbaBiolight variants are exceptionally photostable and fluorogenic. When bound to a target, the optotracers can be imaged using fluorescence microscopy and spectral information can be acquired using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. As spectral information can give hints of the nature of the target, we recommend to acquire excitation and emission spectra whenever possible. All EbbaBiolight variants are intended for use in live-cultures. Fixation can lead to unspecific labelling of bacterial cells, regardless of them gram status. If fixation needs to be performed, we recommend to apply fixation after labelling.

EbbaBiolight variant work in a wide range of salt and pH conditions. When the pH is altered during the experiment, pH controls should be included. EbbaBiolight can be used with fluorescence plate readers, fluorescence microscopes and confocal laser scanning microscopes, fluorescence life time imaging, fluorescence cytometry, Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and Multiphoton microscopy.

Store your EbbaBiolight product in the fridge and use the opened container within 12 months. EbbaBiolight is for research use only and is not for resale.

EbbaBiolight Mix&Try

EbbaBiolight Mix&Try is our recommended option for starting out with using EbbaBiolight. It contains 10 µL of each variant. Testing each variant in the will allow you to determine which one of our optotracers is best suited for your experiment.

All EbbaBiolight variants label extracellular and intracellular bacterial amyloids as well as certain glucans produced as part of the extracellular matrix. Specifically, the optotracers have been used as follows: EbbaBiolight 480 labeling extracellular matrix produced by P. aeruginosa but not C. albicans in a mircofluidic device during mono- and co-culture. EbbaBiolight 630 labeling peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acids in the cell wall of certain gram positives like Staphylococci and E. faecalis. EbbaBiolight 680 labeling curli in the extracellular matrix produced by Salmonella as well as β-glucans, chitin and intracellular amyloid aggregates in yeast- and hypal forms of C. albicans. Furthermore, it has been used to track pellicle biofilm formation in B. cenocepacia. Contact us to learn more about EbbaBiolight applications.

All EbbaBiolight variants are exceptionally photostable and fluorogenic. When bound to a target, the optotracers can be imaged using fluorescence microscopy and spectral information can be acquired using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. As spectral information can give hints of the nature of the target, we recommend to acquire excitation and emission spectra whenever possible. Use recommended filter sets as well as excitation- and emission wavelengths according to the following table.

Table: Excitation- and emission wavelengths as well as recommended filter sets.
Exmax Emmax Recommended filter-sets
EbbaBiolight 480 420 nm 480 nm DAPI
EbbaBiolight 520 460 nm 520 nm FITC, GFP
EbbaBiolight 540 480 nm 540 nm FITC, GFP, YFP
EbbaBiolight 630 520 nm 630 nm PI, Cy3, TxRed, mCherry, Cy3.5
EbbaBiolight 680 530 nm 680 nm PI, mCherry, Cy3.5
contact us for custom options.
EbbaBiolight 680

EbbaBiolight 680 is our red optotracer for labeling extracellular and intracellular bacterial amyloids as well as certain glucans produced as part of the extracellular matrix. Specifically, EbbaBiolight 680 labels curli in the extracellular matrix produced by Salmonella as well as β-glucans and chitins in yeast- and hyphal forms of C. albicans. Furthermore, it has been used to track pellicle biofilm formation by B. cenocepacia. Contact us to learn more about EbbaBiolight applications.

As all our optotracers, EbbaBiolight 680 is exceptionally photostable and fluorogenic. When bound to a target, EbbaBiolight 680 can be imaged using fluorescence microscopy and spectral information can be acquired using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. As spectral information can give hints of the nature of the target, we recommend to acquire excitation and emission spectra whenever possible. Use recommended filter sets as well as excitation- and emission wavelengths according to the table below. 

Table: Excitation- and emission wavelengths as well as recommended filter sets.
Exmax Emmax Recommended filter-sets
EbbaBiolight 680 530 nm 680 nm PI, mCherry, Cy3.5

EbbaBiolight 680 is available in four different formulations (See volumes and prices in the drop-down list below): 

  • Aqueous: 1 mg/ml solution in ultrapure water. The product should be diluted 1:1000 before use. To prevent evaporation of the aqueous solvent, close the container carefully after use, spin down liquid and use up small volumes quickly.
  • DMSO: 1 mg/ml solution in DMSO to prevent solvent evaporation. The product should be diluted 1:1000 before use. For use in live-cells, sometimes 1:500 is necessary due to uptake limitations.
  • Solid: 1 mg solid lyophilised in a sterile injection bottle. We recommend dilution to 4 mg/ml in physiological saline followed by intravenous injection with a total dose of 5 mg/KG.
  • Drop&Shine: 5 ml ready-to-use product in mounting medium. Ideal for use in tissue sections. Add a some Drop&Shine and mount your slide to detect biofilms within minutes.
contact us for custom options.
EbbaBiolight 630

EbbaBiolight 630 is our orange optotracer for labeling extracellular and intracellular bacterial amyloids as well as certain glucans produced as part of the extracellular matrix. Specifically, EbbaBiolight 630 labels peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acids in the cell wall of certain gram positives like Staphylococci and E. faecalis. Contact us to learn more about EbbaBiolight applications.

As all our optotracers, EbbaBiolight 630 is exceptionally photostable and fluorogenic. When bound to a target, EbbaBiolight 630 can be imaged using fluorescence microscopy and spectral information can be acquired using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. As spectral information can give hints of the nature of the target, we recommend to acquire excitation and emission spectra whenever possible. Use recommended filter sets as well as excitation- and emission wavelengths according to the table below. 

Table: Excitation- and emission wavelengths as well as recommended filter sets.
Exmax Emmax Recommended filter-sets
EbbaBiolight 630 520 nm 630 nm PI, Cy3, TxRed, mCherry, Cy3.5

 

EbbaBiolight 630 is available as a 1 mg/ml solution in volumes ranging from 10 - 200 µL (see volumes and prices in the list below). The product should be diluted 1:1000 before use. For use in live-cells, sometimes 1:500 is necessary due to uptake limitations. To prevent evaporation of the aqueous solvent, close the container carefully after use, spin down liquid and use up small volumes quickly.

contact us for custom options.
EbbaBiolight 540

EbbaBiolight 540 is our yellow optotracer for labeling extracellular and intracellular bacterial amyloids as well as certain glucans produced as part of the extracellular matrix. Contact us to learn more about EbbaBiolight applications.

As all our optotracers, EbbaBiolight 540 is exceptionally photostable and fluorogenic. When bound to a target, EbbaBiolight 540 can be imaged using fluorescence microscopy and spectral information can be acquired using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. As spectral information can give hints of the nature of the target, we recommend to acquire excitation and emission spectra whenever possible. Use recommended filter sets as well as excitation- and emission wavelengths according to the table below.

Table: Excitation- and emission wavelengths as well as recommended filter sets.
Exmax Emmax Recommended filter-sets
EbbaBiolight 540 480 nm 540 nm FITC, GFP, YFP

 

EbbaBiolight 540 is available as a 1 mg/ml solution in volumes ranging from 10 - 200 µL (see volumes and prices in the list below). The product should be diluted 1:1000 before use. For use in live-cells, sometimes 1:500 is necessary due to uptake limitations. To prevent evaporation of the aqueous solvent, close the container carefully after use, spin down liquid and use up small volumes quickly.

contact us for custom options.
EbbaBiolight 520

EbbaBiolight 520 is our green optotracer for labeling extracellular and intracellular bacterial amyloids as well as certain glucans produced as part of the extracellular matrix. Contact us to learn more about EbbaBiolight applications.

As all our optotracers, EbbaBiolight 520 is exceptionally photostable and fluorogenic. When bound to a target, EbbaBiolight 520 can be imaged using fluorescence microscopy and spectral information can be acquired using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. As spectral information can give hints of the nature of the target, we recommend to acquire excitation and emission spectra whenever possible. Use recommended filter sets as well as excitation- and emission wavelengths according to the table below.

Table: Excitation- and emission wavelengths as well as recommended filter sets.
Exmax Emmax Recommended filter-sets
EbbaBiolight 520 460 nm 520 nm FITC, GFP

 

EbbaBiolight 520 is available as a 1 mg/ml solution in volumes ranging from 10 - 200 µL (see volumes and prices in the list below). The product should be diluted 1:1000 before use. For use in live-cells, sometimes 1:500 is necessary due to uptake limitations. To prevent evaporation of the aqueous solvent, close the container carefully after use, spin down liquid and use up small volumes quickly.

contact us for custom options.
EbbaBiolight 480

EbbaBiolight 480 is our blue optotracer for labeling extracellular and intracellular bacterial amyloids as well as certain glucans produced as part of the extracellular matrix. Specifically, EbbaBiolight 480 has been used to label extracellular matrix produced by P. aeruginosa but not C. albicans in a mircofluidic device during mono- and co-culture. Contact us to learn more about EbbaBiolight applications.

As all our optotracers, EbbaBiolight 480 is exceptionally photostable and fluorogenic. When bound to a target, EbbaBiolight 680 can be imaged using fluorescence microscopy and spectral information can be acquired using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. As spectral information can give hints of the nature of the target, we recommend to acquire excitation and emission spectra whenever possible. Use recommended filter sets as well as excitation- and emission wavelengths according to the table below.

Table: Excitation- and emission wavelengths as well as recommended filter sets.
Exmax Emmax Recommended filter-sets
EbbaBiolight 480 420 nm 480 nm DAPI

 

EbbaBiolight 480 is available as a 1 mg/ml solution in ultrapure water (Aqueous) with volumes ranging from 10 - 200 µL (see volumes and prices in the list below). The product should be diluted 1:1000 before use. For use in live-cells, sometimes 1:500 is necessary due to uptake limitations. To prevent evaporation of the aqueous solvent, close the container carefully after use, spin down liquid and use up small volumes quickly.

contact us for custom options.

Monitoring curli production in liquid culture using EbbaBiolight

This protocol describes how to monitor kinetics of Salmonella extracellular matrix (curli) production in liquid culture. The method described here is based on Choong et al. (2016) npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, 2, 16024 where isogenic mutants of S. Enteritidis were used to identify the extracellular matrix components curli and cellulose...
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Monitoring curli in bacterial biofilms forming on semi-solid agar

This protocol describes how to use EbbaBiolight to visualise curli in biofilm forming on semi-solid agar in real-time. Curli is a functional amyloid produced by many Enterobactericeae involved in adhesion to surfaces, cell aggregation, and biofilm formation. EbbaBiolight are versatile molecules that have been reported to target various structures in...
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Labeling of surface biofilm using EbbaBiolight

This protocol describes how to grow Salmonella biofilm at an air-liquid interface using inclined glass coverslips and how to visualize Salmonella extracellular matrix component curli using EbbaBiolight. The method described here is based on Choong et al. (2016) npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, 2, 16024 where isogenic mutants of S. Enteritidis...
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Use of EbbaBiolight in the development of a new root canal sterilisation tool

Use of EbbaBiolight in the development of a new root canal sterilisation tool
Sterilisation of root canals before filling is crucial, as unsterile root canals can lead to microbial regrowth and infection. Using methods available today, bacterial regrowth cannot always be prevented as root canal cleaning is challenging mostly due to limited access and the porous structure of dentin. A study by Koch...
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How EbbaBiolight helps researchers to develop biofilm models

How EbbaBiolight helps researchers to develop biofilm models
Formation of biofilm negatively influences wound healing and chronic wounds are known to contain biofilms. Advanced anti-biofilm approaches, preventing biofilm formation but also getting-rid-of already formed biofilm are necessary. However, a lack of standardised models for biofilm testing is a barrier in the field. To solve this issue, researchers from...
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Biofilm formation of UPEC in a biomimetic device occurs at a late stage of colonisation

Biofilm formation of UPEC in a biomimetic device occurs at a late stage of colonisation
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common type of infection of the urinary system caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Unsurprisingly, the microenvironment of the urinary tract provides a challenge for colonisation as bacteria are exposed to hydrodynamic shear stress. To be able to understand how UPEC colonises the urinary...
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Antibiotic Susceptibility of Salmonella using EbbaBiolight supplemented agar

Antibiotic Susceptibility of Salmonella using EbbaBiolight supplemented agar
Antibiotic susceptibility testing is widely performed in clinical microbiology labs. The disk diffusion method is the gold standard for confirming the susceptibility of bacteria. Using this method, introduced by Bauer and Kirby in 1956, a standardized bacterial suspension is prepared and inoculated onto solidified agar and an antibiotic-treated paper (disk)...
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Uncovering bacteria & funghi interactions

Uncovering bacteria & funghi interactions
Microbial populations communicate to achieve tasks that a single organism can not. Therefore, understanding the intricate interactions between different microorganisms is an essential missing piece of scientific knowledge. Elucidating the details of the interaction between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans is of particular interest for biochemical science and clinical practice...
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Tracking of biofilm formation in Burkholderia

Tracking of biofilm formation in Burkholderia
Bacteria and fungi produce biofilms whenever they adhere to a surface to protect themselves from environmental stressors, including antibiotics. Biofilm-related infections are therefore often hard to treat and do not respond well to antibiotic treatment. As an opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory tract Burkholderia cenocepacia is often responsible for hospital-acquired...
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Tracking fungal biofilm formation

Tracking fungal biofilm formation
Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that lives among the gut flora of 40 to 60% of healthy individuals, where it presents as ovoid “yeast” cells. Changes in its environment can trigger a switch towards the formation of multicellular hyphae which is thought to be a crucial step for the...
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Watching bacterial cities grow

Watching bacterial cities grow
Tracking biofilm growth of Salmonella on a semi-solid substrate with GFP-expressing Salmonella bacteria in green and curli in self-produced ECM labeled with EbbaBiolight 680 in red. Video from Choong et al. (CC BY 4.0) When thinking about bacteria, we often imagine bacterial cells floating in liquid medium. But, in reality,...
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Are antimicrobial peptides ending the Antibiotic Crisis?

Are antimicrobial peptides ending the Antibiotic Crisis?
Antibiotic resistance is a major worldwide threat, rising to dangerous levels in which first-line antibiotics will no longer be effective. In this study researchers at Freie Universität Berlin, Germany described the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as an alternative approach against bacterial resistance. Using sub-lethal doses of AMPs, they demonstrated...
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EbbaBiolight-like molecule for detection and quantification of bacteria

EbbaBiolight-like molecule for detection and quantification of bacteria
Fast and reliable testing for pathogenic bacteria like Stapylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is highly desirable in the clinic as it can cause deep-seated infections such as osteomyelitis and endocarditis and is the major cause for hospital acquired infections of surgical wounds or indwelling medical devices. S. aureus is known for...
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EbbaBiolight-like molecule detects biomarker for recurrent infection

EbbaBiolight-like molecule detects biomarker for recurrent infection
A short video clip explains the significance of a test for cellulose in urine indicating the presence of a biofilm related infection. Bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) are known to hide during an infection by encasing themselves in extracellular matrix containing amyloid proteins and cellulose. When they grow...
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EbbaBiolight-like molecules reveals Salmonella biofilm secrets

EbbaBiolight-like molecules reveals Salmonella biofilm secrets
A 2016 study by the Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center at Karolinska Institutet used an EbbaBiolight-like Molecule to detect growth of Salmonella biofilm. This unique fluorescent tracer molecule is non-bactericidal and is therefore capable to dynamically follow the formation of curli fibres and cellulose in Salmonella enterica biofilm in real time....
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Optotracing with EbbaBiolight

Optotracing with EbbaBiolight
EbbaBiolight fluorescent tracer molecules are optotracers. Unlike conventional fluorescent dyes, optotracers bind promiscuously to a range of targets with repetitive motifs. EbbaBiolight has been shown to bind to curli and cellulose in Salmonella extracellular matrix [1,2], peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acids in the cell envelope of Staphylococci [3], β-glucans from S....
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Antimicrobial peptides for targeting bacterial resistance

Antimicrobial peptides for targeting bacterial resistance
The problem of antibiotic resistance is leading to rising fatalities due to bacterial infections world wide and extensive research into antibiotic resistance has uncovered that more and more bacterial species are becoming immune to antibiotics. In order to protect against bacterial resistance, antimicrobial peptides are investigated for targeting bacterial resistance....
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EbbaBiolight fluorescence spectra

EbbaBiolight fluorescence spectra
We named our EbbaBiolight molecules after their peak emission wavelength when they are bound to their target. That means, when EbbaBiolight is bound to a target, it will emit fluorescence at peak emission indicated by the number associated with its name. To view the excitation and emission spectra, please select...
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Testimonial - Andrea Sass

Dr. Andrea Sass about EbbaBiolight 680: "In the Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ghent University, we used EbbaBiolight 680 for visualizing extracellular matrix in pellicles formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that the product labels pellicle matrix of P. aeruginosa specifically, bacterial cells were not labelled. The method revealed structural differences...
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Testimonial - Cameron Croft

Cameron Croft about EbbaBiolight 680: "Our group has used crystal violet in the past to quantify the total biomass of E. coli biofilms, with mixed results. In addition to an end-point assay, we were looking for a method to quantify the development of biofilm throughout growth. In our hands, EbbaBiolight...
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Testimonial - Herve Straub

Hervé Straub about EbbaBiolight 680: Hervé Straub is a PhD student at Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and and Technology, St. Gallen, Switzerland and is working on the establishment of an automatized microfluidic platform to study bacterial biofilm formation in real-time by optical microscopy. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1)...
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Opto-electronically active Materials for Infection Detection and Control

Ebba Biotech welcomes you to listen to our resident expert from the Center for the Advancement of the Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences (AIMES) at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden - Dr. Susanne Löffler. During this talk titled "Opto-electronically active Materials for Infection Detection and Control", Dr. Löffler will be presenting AIMES...
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Chemical sensors enable scientists to watch bacterial cities grow

The Research Square video provides a summary of a publication by Choong et al. about a new semi-high throughput metod to monitor biofilm formation in Salmonella using EbbaBiolight. Please have a look on our summary article for more information.
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Discovering an Antibiofilm Therapy for Urinary Tract Infections

Ebba Biotech welcomes you to listen to Dr. Ashraf Zarkan from University of Cambridge presenting his work on antibiofilm therapies for urinary tract infections using EbbaBiolight. About the speaker: Ashraf Zarkan is a microbiologist with a pharmaceutical background, holding a PhD in Biochemistry from the University of Cambridge. He did...
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Optotracers - multifunctional fluorescent tracers

On the first of June 2021, Ferdinand Choong, Ebba Biotech's co-founder, and Assistant Professor at Karolinska Institutet and AIMES (Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering), presented his research using Ebba Biotech's optotracers at the digital event Lab & Diagnostics of the Future 2021, held by Life Science...
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Optotracing for detection & quantification of Staphylococci

Ebba Biotech welcomes you to listen to Dr. Karen Butina present her research findings using EbbaBiolight-like molecules. This webinar will focus on the use of the Optotracer molecules and technology applied on Staphylococci bacteria. You can read more about Dr. Butina's work here. DISCLAIMER: Dr. Butina describes her work using...
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Agneta Richter-Dahlfors explains why biofilm is so important

If you always wondered what Biofilms are and why its important to being able to see them, you can watch our founder and chairman Professor Agneta Richter-Dahlfors' descriptive interview about Biofilms on Swedish National TV program "Godmorgon Sverige".
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Cellulose in urine

Scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden published a research paper (Antypas et al. (2019) npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, 4, 26) about the significance of a test for cellulose in urine indicating the presence of a biofilm related infection. Using EbbaBiolight-like Molecules, cellulose can be shown to be present in urine...
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EbbaBiolight-like Molecule used for detection of cellulose in urine

Scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden published a research paper (Antypas et al. (2019) npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, 4, 26) about the significance of a test for cellulose in urine indicating the presence of a biofilm related infection. Using EbbaBiolight-like Molecules, cellulose can be shown to be present in urine...
Read more →

We named our EbbaBiolight molecules after their peak emission wavelength when they are bound to their target. That means, when EbbaBiolight is bound to a target, it will emit fluorescence at peak emission indicated by the number associated with its name.

To view the excitation and emission spectra, please select your EbbaBiolight below :

Excitation (blue lines) and emission (red lines) spectra of unbound EbbaBiolight (dotted lines) and EbbaBiolight bound to a target (solid lines).

2024

  • Ray, Sanhita, Susanne Löffler, and Agneta Richter-Dahlfors. 2024. “High-Resolution Large-Area Image Analysis Deciphers the Distribution of Salmonella Cells and ECM Components in Biofilms Formed on Charged PEDOT:PSS Surfaces.” Advanced Science. https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202307322.

2023

  • Antypas, Haris, Tianqi Zhang, Ferdinand X Choong, Keira Melican, and Agneta Richter-Dahlfors. 2023. “Dynamic Single Cell Analysis in a Proximal-Tubule-on-Chip Reveals Heterogeneous Epithelial Colonization Strategies of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Under Shear Stress.” FEMS Microbes 4: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/femsmc/xtad007.
  • Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta, Elina Kärkkäinen, and Ferdinand X. Choong. 2023. “Fluorescent Optotracers for Bacterial and Biofilm Detection and Diagnostics.” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 24: 2246867. https://doi.org/10.1080/14686996.2023.2246867.
  • Coppens, Bart, Tom E R Belpaire, Ji Rí Pe, Hans P Steenackers, Herman Ramon, and Bart Smeets. 2023. “Anomalous Diffusion of Nanoparticles in the Spatially Heterogeneous Biofilm Environment.” ISCIENCE 26: 106861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2023.106861.
  • Lorenz, Kairi, Liis Preem, Kadi Sagor, Marta Putrinš, Tanel Tenson, and Karin Kogermann. 2023. “Development of in Vitro and Ex Vivo Biofilm Models for the Assessment of Antibacterial Fibrous Electrospun Wound Dressings.” Molecular Pharmaceutics 20 (February): 1230–46. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.2c00902.
  • Shaikh, Nijamuddin, and Karishma S Kaushik. 2023. “Title Optotracers to Study Biofilms in Host-Relevant Systems and Non-Conventional Treatments Using Staphylococcus Aureus Wound Biofilms as a Case Study.” BioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.02.02.526914.

2022

2021

  • Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro, Desiree Y. Baeder, Paul Johnston, Roland R. Regoes, and Jens Rolff. 2021. “Bacteria Primed by Antimicrobial Peptides Develop Tolerance and Persist.” PLoS Pathogens 17: 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PPAT.1009443.
  • Merkl, Padryk, Marie Stephanie Aschtgen, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, and Georgios A. Sotiriou. 2021. “Biofilm Interfacial Acidity Evaluation by pH-Responsive Luminescent Nanoparticle Films.” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 171: 112732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112732.
  • Choong, Ferdinand X., Smilla Huzell, Ming Rosenberg, Johannes A. Eckert, Madhu Nagaraj, Tianqi Zhang, Keira Melican, Daniel E. Otzen, and Agneta Richter-Dahlfors. 2021. “A Semi High-Throughput Method for Real-Time Monitoring of Curli Producing Salmonella Biofilms on Air-Solid Interfaces.” Biofilm 3: 100060. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioflm.2021.100060.