How sensitive is Amytracker™ when compared to Congo Red?
A comparative study between Congo red and Amytracker™545 of approximately 100 amyloid containing tissues showed 100 % sensitivity or complete correlation with Congo red stains. When analyzing approximately 30 Congo red negative control cases, 85 % were confirmed negative by Amytracker™545 staining, while the remaining 15 % showed positive indications of amyloid deposits. Amytracker™545 fluorescence is one magnitude brighter than Congo red and is typically used at several fold lower concentrations. When analyzing approximately 30 Congo red negative control cases, 85 % were confirmed negative by Amytracker™545 staining, while the remaining 15 % showed positive indications of amyloid deposits with Amytracker™545. The pathological relevance of Congo Red negative deposits is currently unclear but might give an indication of earlier states of disease. Amytracker™545 fluorescence is one magnitude brighter than Congo red and is typically used at several fold lower concentrations. Read more: Sjölander et. al. 2016, Amyloid, 23(2), 98-108
Amytracker™545 has also been utilize to detect disease-assocaiated protein aggregates, such as prion and inclusion bodies, which go undetected by Congo red. Read more: Magnusson et. al. 2014, Prion, 8(4), 319-29, Nyström et. al. 2015, Scientific Reports, 11(5), 10101 and Klinstedt et. al. 2013, Chembiochem, 14(5), 607-16
Does Amytracker™ work on hares?
It is highly probable that Amytracker™ will work on Lepus (hare) tissue. Amytracker™ targets and detects the physical topography of the tertiary- and quaternary structure of mature and pre-fibrillar amyloid deposits. As such it is applicable to a wide range of animal models and the dye has been applied on tissue sections from humans, mice, cows, sheep, deer and Drosophila.
Does Amytracker™ bind to TTR?
Opto-tracers of the Amytracker™ series have been shown to be effective for aggregates composed of TTR in Drosophila models of TTR, as well as in human tissues. This was verified and published respectively in Berg et al. 2010, Nature Protocols, 5(5), 934-44 and in Sjölander et. al. 2016, Amyloid, 23(2), 98-108
How many slides can I do using Amytracker™?
For each 7.6 x 2.5 cm (3 x 1 inch) glass slide, we recommend the use of a 1 ml staining solution containing 2 μl of Amytracker™ as supplied. This translates to 25 slides with the 50 μl product and 50 slides with the 100 μl product. Titration of Amytracker™ for more diluted staining solutions can affect sensitivity.
Can Amytracker™ be used to stain amyloids in the carotid artery in mice, or for studying heart disease?
Opto-tracers of the Amytracker™ series stain amyloids in the carotid artery and heart. This was verified and published by Sjölander et. al. 2016, Amyloid, 23(2), 98-108.
How is Amytracker™ better than Thioflavin?
Opto-tracers of the Amytracker™ series have been shown to reveal more disease associated protein aggregates than Thioflavin T. Amytracker™ opto-tracers are also able to distinguish between different types of disease associated protein aggregates. If you are interested specific publications, or about how Amytracker™ can be applied to your model, please contact us for more information.
How is Amytracker™ binding to amyloids (disease associated protein aggregates)?
Amytracker™ binds to disease associated protein aggregates by intercalating with the protein aggregates in a similar fashion as congo red. This intercalation occurs by a mix of hydrophobic and electrostatic forces.
Does Amytracker™ work on paraffin sections?
Amytracker™ is compatible with a wide range of fixed and embedded sections, including formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. It has, however, been shown that formalin-fixation reduces the ability to stain inclusion bodies. Read more: Åslund et. al. 2009, ACS Chemical Biology, 4(8), 673-684 Note that epitobe exposure and antigen retrieval is not needed when applying Amytracker™ to paraffin embedded sections. Generally we recommend to use Amytracker™ on cryo-sectioned tissues.
How does Amytracker™ show the difference between Aβ plaques and τ tangles?
When applied to tissues, opto-tracers of the Amytracker™ series bind to disease associated protein aggregates and adopt a complementary geometry unique to each interaction. The resulting redshift in emission wavelengths occurs with different extents between Aβ plaques and τ tangles. Thus, the different aggregated species, Aβ plaques and τ tangles, display distinct emission spectra when stained with Amytracker™. This is shown elegantly by Klingstedt et. al. 2011, Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 9(24), 8356-70.
Can I use Amytracker™ on live animals?
At present, opto-tracers of the Amytracker™ series are not for use on live animals. Amytracker™ for live animal models will soon be made available. Opto-tracers of the Amytracker™ series have been used to image a wide range of disease associated aggregates in mouse cerebral amyloidosis models, both in vitro and in vivo. Comprehensive data and detailed protocols were published by Åslund et. al. 2009, ACS Chemical Biology, 4(8), 673-684. If you are interested in pre-released products from Ebba Biotech AB, please contact us for further discussions.
Does Amytracker™ enter cell walls, and stain cells?
In the cell types we have tested, Amytracker™ enters the cell and binds if there are protein aggregates in the cell.
Does Amytracker™ help me differentiate between collagen and amyloids?
Like Congo red, collagen produces "green birefringence", and thus it is difficult to separate between collagen and amyloid stained with Congo red. This is no problem for Amytracker™ because it is fluorescent. Amytracker™ does not stain collagen. If you are using a suitable antibody for Collagen in combination with Amytracker™, you will be able to differentiate Amyloids in your staining.
Can I use Amytracker™ on frozen sections?
Yes, Amytracker™ actually works best on frozen sections, that have been fixated in chilled ethanol for 10 minutes.
Does Amytracker™ bind to other things than Amyloids?
In a study where more than 100 human tissues were stained for the presence of amyloids (Sjölander et. al. 2016, Amyloid, 23(2), 98-108), Amytracker™ did not show unspecific staining in surrounding tissue. The only functional structure stained with Amytracker™ was Paneth cell granules in the intestine. However, it is known that Amytracker™ is more sensitive to amyloids than Congo red. Thus, Amytracker™ will detect amyloid species which go undetected by Congo red.
What does the number behind Amytracker™ mean?
We named our products after their peak emission wavelength when they are bound to their target. That means, when Amytracker™480 is bound to amyloids, it will emit blue flourescence that you can see with a standard DAPI filter set. Amytracker™515 appears green when bound to amyloids and we recommend a standard FITC filter set for imaging. Amytracker™545 is yellow and you can choose between the standard FITC or TRITC filter sets to image your amyloid staining. Our red Amytracker™680 can be imaged with the Cy5 filter set when its bound to amyloids.
The staining didn’t work, what should I do?
Email or call us straight away, we are here to help. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: +46 73 985 40 51
Can I order via Purchase Order?
You can order with us via Purchase Order, but we will charge you a handling fee. It is important for us that you accept our Terms & Conditions. We will send you an "Acknowledgement of Purchase Order" in which we state our terms, add shipping cost and handling fee and give you an estimated shipping date.
|Handling Fee||Price in SEK||Price in EUR||Price in USD|
|Purchase Order||200 SEK||20 EUR||20 USD|
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You can pay via invoice if you order from us via our webshop. Just select the payment method "invoice" at checkout. Don't forget to let us know your billing address or we will send your invoice with your order. The invoice is payable 30 days after invoice date.
What are the prices for shipping to Sweden, Europe and other countries?
As stated in our Terms & Conditions, we will charge a shipping fee dependent on the country we are Shipping to. We will let you know the shipping fee for your country in the Order Confirmation. The shipping fees for Sweden, Europe, North America and Other countries are as follows:
|Country||Price in SEK||Price in EUR||Price in USD|
|Sweden||200 SEK||20 EUR||20 USD|
|Europe||400 SEK||40 EUR||40 USD|
|North America||450 SEK||45 EUR||45 USD|
|Other Countries||700 SEK||73 EUR||82 USD|
Will I receive an Order Confirmation?
When you ordered through our website, you will receive a note stating that we have received your Order and that we will process it ASAP. When we have reviewed your Order, you will receive an Order Confirmation by mail stating ALL costs as well as an estimated shipping date. You will receive a Shipping Notification together with a tracking code when we have shipped your order.